Die casting can be a metal casting procedure that is observed as forcing molten metal under high-pressure right into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is created using two hardened tool steel dies which were machined healthy and work similarly to CNC precision machining during the process. Most die castings are produced from non-ferrous metals, specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter and tin-based alloys. Dependant upon the sort of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber machine is used.

The casting equipment as well as the metal dies represent large capital costs and that tends to limit this process to high-volume production. Output of parts using die casting is pretty simple, involving only four main steps, which ensures you keep the incremental cost per item low. It is actually especially suited for a sizable number of small- to medium-sized castings, which is the reason die casting produces more castings than every other casting process. Die castings are described as a good surface finish (by casting standards) and dimensional consistency.

Two variants are pore-free die casting, which is often used to get rid of gas porosity defects; and direct injection die casting, which is often used with zinc castings to lower scrap and increase yield.

History

Die casting equipment was invented in 1838 when it comes to producing movable type for that printing industry. The 1st die casting-related patent was granted in 1849 for a small hand-operated machine just for mechanized printing type production. In 1885 Otto Mergenthaler invented the linotype machine, an automated type-casting device which became the prominent form of equipment from the publishing industry. The Soss die-casting machine, made in Brooklyn, NY, was the initial machine to be sold in the open market in Canada And America. Other applications grew rapidly, with die casting facilitating the growth of consumer goods and appliances if you make affordable the creation of intricate parts in high volumes. In 1966, General Motors released the Acurad process.

The main die casting alloys are: zinc, aluminium, magnesium, copper, lead, and tin; although uncommon, ferrous die casting is likewise possible. Specific die casting alloys include: Zamak; zinc aluminium; water proof aluminum enclosure to, e.g. The Aluminum Association (AA) standards: AA 380, AA 384, AA 386, AA 390; and AZ91D magnesium.F The following is a summary of the benefits of each alloy:

Zinc: the most convenient metal to cast; high ductility; high-impact strength; easily plated; economical for small parts; promotes long die life.

Aluminium: lightweight; high dimensional stability for complex shapes and thin walls; good corrosion resistance; good mechanical properties; high thermal and electrical conductivity; retains strength at high temperatures.

Magnesium: the best metal to machine; excellent strength-to-weight ratio; lightest alloy commonly die cast.

Copper: high hardness; high corrosion resistance; highest mechanical properties of alloys die cast; excellent wear resistance; excellent dimensional stability; strength approaching that of steel parts.

Silicon tombac: high-strength alloy manufactured from copper, zinc and silicon. Often used as a replacement for investment casted steel parts.

Lead and tin: high density; extremely close dimensional accuracy; employed for special types of corrosion resistance. Such alloys are certainly not utilized in foodservice applications for public health reasons. Type metal, an alloy of lead, tin and antimony (with sometimes traces of copper) is commonly used for casting hand-set type letterpress printing and hot foil blocking. Traditionally cast at your fingertips jerk moulds now predominantly die cast following the industrialisation of your type foundries. Around 1900 the slug casting machines came into the market and added further automation, with sometimes dozens of casting machines at one newspaper office.

There are many of geometric features that need considering when producing a parametric model of a die casting:

Draft is the level of slope or taper presented to cores or other aspects of the die cavity allowing for easy ejection in the casting in the die. All die cast surfaces that are parallel on the opening direction of your die require draft to the proper ejection in the casting in the die. Die castings which feature proper draft are easier to remove from your die and cause high-quality surfaces and more precise finished product.

Fillet may be the curved juncture of two surfaces that might have otherwise met with a sharp corner or edge. Simply, fillets may be added to a die casting to eliminate undesirable edges and corners.

Parting line represents the idea where two different sides of the mold get together. The position of the parting line defines which side in the die is definitely the cover and which is the ejector.

Bosses are included in die castings to serve as stand-offs and mounting points for parts that should be mounted. For max integrity and strength of your die casting, bosses need to have universal wall thickness.

Ribs are added to a die casting to supply added support for designs which need maximum strength without increased wall thickness.

Holes and windows require special consideration when die casting because the perimeters of those features will grip for the die steel during solidification. To counteract this affect, generous draft needs to be included in hole and window features.

Equipment

There are two basic varieties of die casting machines: hot-chamber machines and cold-chamber machines. These are generally rated by how much clamping force they could apply. Typical ratings are between 400 and 4,000 st (2,500 and 25,400 kg).

Hot-chamber die casting

Schematic of a hot-chamber machine

Hot-chamber die casting, often known as gooseneck machines, depend on a swimming pool of molten metal to give the die. At the outset of the cycle the piston of the machine is retracted, which allows the molten metal to fill the “gooseneck”. The pneumatic- or hydraulic-powered piston then forces this metal from the die casting parts to the die. The main advantages of this technique include fast cycle times (approximately 15 cycles a minute) along with the ease of melting the metal within the casting machine. The disadvantages with this system are that it is restricted to use with low-melting point metals which aluminium cannot 21dexupky used because it picks up a few of the iron whilst in the molten pool. Therefore, hot-chamber machines are primarily used in combination with zinc-, tin-, and lead-based alloys.

These are used when the casting alloy can not be found in hot-chamber machines; some examples are aluminium, zinc alloys with a large composition of aluminium, magnesium and copper. The method of these machines start out with melting the metal inside a separate furnace. Then this precise quantity of molten metal is transported towards the cold-chamber machine where it can be fed into an unheated shot chamber (or injection cylinder). This shot will be driven in the die with a hydraulic or mechanical piston. The biggest disadvantage of this product is the slower cycle time because of the need to transfer the molten metal through the furnace for the cold-chamber machine.