Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern research has disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor outcomes of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore oil and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the results of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases as well as the cell cycle. The outcomes indicated that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.

Ganoderma lucidum, also called Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is one of most frequently used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and scientific studies have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in the fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The present study examined the antitumor activity of a combination of aqueous and ethanol extracts in the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, which had been taken from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases certainly are a class of enzymes working in the regulating DNA supercoiling.

Topoisomerase overexpression continues to be linked to numerous human malignancies and is also the objective for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). When topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription from the DNA and during cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study revealed that the active components of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The present study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.

Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were offered by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Technology and science Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to get ready solutions of various concentrations, which were brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil was actually a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of ganoderma lucidum spore oil were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 ┬Ál/ml (v/v) Tween 80.

Recently, the result of Ganoderma on tumors has been increasingly studied. The current study said that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the expansion of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the expansion in the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects inside the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.

Since olden days, Ganoderma continues to be popular being a popular herbal medicine for your promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to have a certain influence on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of the primary elements of Ganoderma extract is really a polysaccharide that has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). As there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) within the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident influence on immunity. The present study also established that the antitumor results of Ganoderma could be safer in comparison with 5-FU, which ended in the decreased body weight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).

To research the possible mechanism of ganoderma lucidum spore oil, the effects of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases as well as the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.

DNA topoisomerases certainly are a class of enzymes involved in the regulation of DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases modify the amount of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. These two activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, once the DNA helix should be unwound to enable proper purpose of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy uses this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. For instance, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, like doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.